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Microscopy & Imaging

Color Transmission Electron Microscopy

There are two types of electron microscopy—transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM creates fascinating 2D images by bouncing electrons off the surface of the sample. I highly recommend searching for SEM samples on Google images. While SEM images are aesthetically amazing, the TEM images bring us inside the world of the…

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From Cells to Scope: Chamber Slide Immunochemistry

Immunolabeling is the tried-and-true immunochemistry method of getting the stain you want onto the molecular target you want. Whether that target is contained within a large region of tissue (immunohistochemistry) or inside a single cell (immunocytochemistry), the ability to accurately label large numbers of samples will simplify your workflow and help you to achieve excellent…

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Lasers for Confocal Microscopy: Part II

Continuing from our first article on lasers for confocal microscopy, we will now discuss two specialized types of lasers: lasers for two-photon excitation and tunable, white light lasers. We will also discuss the applications of the two lasers. Lasers for Two-Photon Excitation The two-photon absorption phenomenon was first described for microscopy in 1931. Here, the…

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The A to Z of Histological Stains

With the use of stains and dyes, histology allows researchers to visualize particular tissue structures, chemical elements within cells, tissues and even microorganisms. The advent and evolution of histology follows that of microscopy as outlined in ‘A (very) Short History of Histology’. Histology, which means ‘tissue science’ became an academic discipline in its own right…

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Tissue Embedding Throwdown: Paraffin vs OCT vs Resin

Tissue embedding and sectioning is a backbone of many biological research labs. While commiserating with other grad students over tedious hours spent in the lab, you’re probably aware that there is more than one way to slice up a chunk of tissue. We’ve previously introduced what to consider when choosing a tissue embedding medium and…

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How to Use CellProfiler for Cell Imaging

Are you trying to figure out how to calculate intensities of fluorescently-labeled single cells? Do you have cells at high densities or present in clusters? Are you worried that your current cell imaging analysis software is unable to mark clear boundaries around each cell in a cell cluster? Don’t fear, because CellProfiler 2.1 is here to…

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How to Obtain Stellar Staining with Fluorescent IHC

They say “a picture is worth a thousand words.” This is especially true in the case of fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC). With the flip of a microscope filter, you can gaze into a brightly colored galaxy of red, green, and blue pixels, waiting to be captured and presented in your next publication. If you are interested in…

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Detecting Cell Apoptosis on Tissue Slides

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a physiological process in which individual cells are set to die without harming their environment. It involves a cascade of complex and tightly regulated cellular events. Detecting apoptosis on tissue slides, involves either detecting the molecular participants of these events, or the morphological changes that occur on the cellular…

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Automated Microscopy

The traditional microscope that you know and love is operated manually. Picture the scene: the microscopist chooses the light source, gently places the sample the moveable stage, selects the objective lens, and scans to select the field of view. This process is perfect for processing and analyzing a small number of samples per day. But…

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Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy

Proper sample preparation plays an important role in obtaining the required information when using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). You need to consider the sample’s size, shape, state, and conductive properties prior to sample preparation. Ideally, the smallest representative sample size is the one to use. The microscope’s detection capacity is as much as 1µm from…

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In Situ Zymography: Let’s Catch that Enzyme in Action!

In situ zymography (ISZ) is the best choice to study proteases. Proteases are a challenge to study as proteases are extremely potent enzymes. As such, they need to be controlled at multiple levels to prevent them from being unleashed and making a cellular mess. Regulation of their activity occurs at virtually all levels: transcriptional control,…

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Automated Cell Counting with a Fluorescent Twist

Cell counting is the bane of existence of many researchers. Countless hours spent in front of the microscope with a haemocytometer on the stand and a manual tally (or “clicker”) in hand can be really daunting. Not to mention that no one will ever double check your count if you don’t take a picture. Those…

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Analyze Immunostained Slides with Semiquantitative Scoring

A  routine task in the lab is to investigate the presence of your favorite protein in a range of histological samples. No doubt, staining your tissue sections using good old immunohistochemistry (IHC) would be your first choice. You just got to love a technique that has celebrated its 70th birthday, and is still used in…

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