Tips for Successful Bone Marrow Isolation 

Tips for Successful Bone Marrow Isolation 

During my first year of graduate school, I learned how to isolate bone marrow. I remember watching my mentor in awe, wondering how would I be able to do such a difficult technique. Flash forward to a few weeks later and I was confidently undertaking bone marrow isolation. Learning a new technique is always daunting,…

Culturing M1 and M2 Macrophages: Media Matters
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Culturing M1 and M2 Macrophages: Media Matters

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell derived from monocytes that are most widely known for the ability to phagocytose cell debris, pathogens, and even cancer cells. However, it is becoming clear that the role of macrophages goes beyond eliminating cellular waste. Macrophages are often used in conjunction with T cells to measure immune…

The What, Why and How of Explant Culture

The What, Why and How of Explant Culture

What Is Explant Culture and Why Should I Use It? Explant culture is the culture of small pieces of tissue surgically removed from animal tissue or organ. It is a useful method for several reasons. The maintenance of the histotypic architecture and biochemical properties of the cells means it more closely resembles the tissue in…

6 Steps for Successful in vitro Drug Treatment

6 Steps for Successful in vitro Drug Treatment

You might have seen one of the many anti-drug ads the 80s had to offer (including this delightful message from Robocop) and rightfully steered clear of drugs. But when it comes to biology, we use in vitro drug treatment for many experimental purposes, including testing anti-cancer treatments or synchronizing the cell cycle. If you are facing your first in vitro…

Nodulation: What Is It and Why Is It Important?

Nodulation: What Is It and Why Is It Important?

Plants are incredibly organisms. Not only do they provide atmospheric oxygen, but, in the case of legumes, they can transform atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonia, which can then be consumed by humans. How does this happen, you ask? It’s all thanks to bacteria and the process of nodulation. Deep Breaths Nitrogen is an incredibly important…

Successful Start: Tips for Establishing Organoids

Successful Start: Tips for Establishing Organoids

Organoids are a developing star of research. They can be grown to represent the majority of mammalian organs and have a wide range of possible applications. More realistic than simple monolayer cell culture, they offer an in-between step that reduces the need for animal models and simplifies (although doesn’t completely remove) ethics paperwork. They are…

Staying Alive: Tips for Air-Liquid Interface Cultures

Staying Alive: Tips for Air-Liquid Interface Cultures

What Is Air-Liquid Interface Culture? Long gone are the days where scientists had to rely on 2D cultures of immortalized cell lines to learn principles of human biology. Today, we have a variety of cell culture systems that come closer than ever before to mimicking the structure and function of our body’s organs. One example…

Five Factors Affecting Your Mouse Behavioral Studies 

Five Factors Affecting Your Mouse Behavioral Studies 

Let’s face it: the nature of behavior itself is inherently variable, whether it’s the heterogeneous socializing behavior of humans at parties, the complex aggressive behavior of rodents when they perceive a threat, or the intricate courtship behavior of insects during their mating dances. Because of this variability, the struggles associated with trying to (successfully) reproduce…