Quantcast

Techniques

Crash Course in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is an extremely sensitive technique for measuring the absorption and intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region of the spectrum of either a solid, liquid or gas sample. You can use FTIR to: quantify unknown compounds identify unknown compounds study the detailed structured coordination of compounds How Does Fourier…

Read More

Old Reliable: Two-Step Allelic Exchange

Manipulating the genes of organisms is crucial for studying their functions. In times before genetic engineering, scientists would shoot bacteria with X-rays or expose them to destructive chemicals until spontaneous mutations would arise. Fortunately, current methods are more sophisticated and less torturous. Researchers now use more directed techniques to introduce mutations. There are several ways…

Read More

The Correct Way To Quantify Cellular Autophagy

Just like you need to clean up your room from time to time, your cells also need to do a bit of housekeeping.  Your cells accomplish this through a process called autophagy.  Autophagy mainly serves two roles.  The first is to remove damaging materials, such as misfolded proteins, dysfunctional organelles, and foreign invaders.  The second…

Read More

How to Grow Corn in a Greenhouse

Because of the ease of performing controlled crosses, maize (or corn (Zea mays)), has been a staple of plant genetics research for decades. Barbara McClintock herself chose maize as her research organism for her Nobel Prize winning work. If you are looking to get involved but aren’t sure how to get good yields in the…

Read More

4 Major Things to Consider Before Lysing Your Cells

You’ve cultured your cells and completed your treatments, now it’s time to harvest them and proceed to the downstream assays. Cell lysis is the crucial stage that determines if your experiment has a chance of producing the data that you have been waiting for. Part of the starting biological material is inevitably lost on each…

Read More

An Introduction to Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs)

You may have heard about a breakthrough cancer therapy that engineers patient’s immune cells to fight their cancer using  chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. If you don’t live in the world of immunology, you may not know what a CAR is, or what it is used for. Here you’ll find a brief guide to CARs,…

Read More

4 Important Considerations for Your Cell Lysis

You’ve cultured your cells and completed your treatments, now it’s time to harvest them and proceed to the downstream effects. Cell lysis is the crucial stage that determines if your experiment has a chance of producing the data that you have been waiting for. Part of the starting biological material is inevitably lost on each…

Read More

An Introduction to Cardiac Optical Mapping

What Is Optical Mapping and How Is It Used? Synchronisation of the contraction of heart muscle is essential for the efficient pumping of blood through the circulatory system. Cardiac contraction is controlled by the regulated spread of electrical impulses from cell-to-cell within the heart.  In pathological conditions, these electrical impulses can become disordered and lead…

Read More

New-ISH on the Block: Introduction to RNAscope®

When sensitive detection of RNA is required, many scientists turn to qPCR as it is a versatile technique that can detect many different types of RNAs from mRNA, non-coding RNA, to microRNA. However, if you also require spatial information, like which cells are producing your RNA, the technology of choice has historically been in situ…

Read More

Generating High-Quality Genome Assemblies from Metagenomic Sequencing

The decreasing costs in genomic sequencing over the past decade have inspired researchers to apply shotgun next-generation sequencing to entire microbial communities. While the reads generated typically cannot be assembled cleanly into individual genomes, there is often enough information produced to identify most microbes present in the population. However, this approach lacks sufficient resolution to…

Read More

Immuno-PCR: A Highly Sensitive Method of Immunodetection

Researchers have relied on immunodetection techniques such as Western blotting, flow cytometry and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for years, but immuno-PCR is a relatively new method. By merging an ELISA with the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), immuno-PCR provides extremely high levels of assay sensitivity. ELISA An ELISA is an assay in which a molecule is…

Read More

Fishing for Kinases with Multiplex Inhibitor Bead Assays

There is something about kinases that resemble ghosts. Their effects reveal their presence, but they can be difficult to catch. With a low abundance of hundreds or even tens of molecules per cell, they are difficult to detect using conventional methods such as Western blotting or mass spectrometry (MS). However, you will need to detect…

Read More

Epidemiology: The Underdog of Disease Studies

As bench scientists, we deal primarily with the tangible aspects of biology. The mechanisms and pathways that we try to understand not only allow for us to delve more into how the world works, but can also shed light on disease. However, there is a subject that while distant from traditional bench work, is equally…

Read More

Top Five Methods for Primary Antibody Labeling

In any application that uses antibodies for signal detection (e.g., Western blotting, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, or FACS), there are two approaches to antibody labeling: direct and indirect labeling. Standard Western blotting uses indirect labeling because you use a primary antibody to detect the target antigen, followed by a secondary antibody to which a detection molecule is…

Read More

An Experimental Tool-kit for Measuring Protein Stability

Proteins in the cell are in a constant flux governed by events including synthesis and degradation. In an effort to make cells more efficient by reducing the unnecessary protein load, most proteins in the cell have a specifically defined half-life. Another reason why cells have evolved to degrade proteins is to ensure timely removal of…

Read More