Protein Expression & Analysis

Codon Optimization for Increased Protein Expression

articodon optimizations tools in synthetic biology

The Genetic Code: A Universal Template for Protein Translation All known organisms share the ‘central dogma’ of molecular biology. DNA is transcribed into mRNA that is translated into protein. During the discovery of the genetic code, Francis Crick hypothesized that translation required a mediator to aid mRNA-guided translation according to a number of specifics. Amongst…

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Antibody Validation

antibody validation protocol and research

Not all antibodies are valid for every experiment and condition, and they must be validated for the specific application and species. Currently, there is no standard means of “antibody validation,” and this can greatly impact experimental reproducibility and reliability. Journals and granting agencies have taken steps to address this gap. Many now require you to…

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Introduction to DREADDs – Control Over G Protein Coupled Receptor GPCR signaling


Gee, Protein, What Do You Do? Manipulation of a system under investigation is the backbone of experimentation. A new tool called Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) allows us to hijack cell signaling and study cell function within living organisms. Like its cousin technique, optogenetics, DREADD technology uses a viral vector to introduce…

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A Primer on Phage Display Libraries

phage display

Phage display – the process of genetically fusing antibody fragments with phage to identify binding partners to your protein of interest – was covered pretty thoroughly here over the past few months. The success of this assay predicates on creating a diverse library of up to 1012 genes coding for these antibody fragments. Despite being…

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How to Store Your Concentrated Proteins

Like graduate students, proteins are sensitive to rough handling. This is particularly true when they (the proteins, not the students!) are being concentrated, purified, and stored. We’ve covered the many options out there for concentrating your proteins, along with how to handle protein extracts to keep your proteins safe from degradation. But proteins can degrade…

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How to Choose Quality Antibodies for Successful Western Blotting

Choosing Antibodies For Immunoblotting

Successful western blotting means achieving unambiguous results, and this requires a sensitive and specific antibody-antigen interaction. Consequently, high quality antibodies are critical for reliable and consistent western blotting. Western Blotting Process In the basic western blotting process, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) separates a mix of proteins according to their molecular weights (denaturing gels) or their…

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Fluorescent Western Blotting: Lowdown and Advantages

In this article, you will be introduced to the world of fluorescent western blotting. Firstly, we will compare fluorescent and chemiluminescent western blotting. Then, we will learn how infrared fluorescent western blotting can give you truly quantitative and reproducible results. Lastly, we’ll look at the many advantages of fluorescent western blotting, including the possibility to multiplex. Importantly,…

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