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Thomas Warwick

I am a content creator here at Bitesize Bio. I have a Master’s Degree in Chemistry from Loughborough University and a Ph.D. in Structural Biology from the University of Nottingham. After a brief stint working as a Research Assistant in Knowledge Exchange, also at the University of Nottingham, I became a Technician at Nottingham Trent University, managing two research laboratories and providing technical and developmental guidance to students and researchers. In 2022, I started this job full-time, sharing my cross-disciplinary knowledge and research experience.

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Articles by Thomas Warwick

A frozen fisherman learning Top Tips for Freeze Dryer Use and Care

Tips for Using and Maintaining Your Laboratory’s Freeze Dryer

By Thomas Warwick | February 8, 2024

Keep your lab’s freeze dryer running smoothly with our expert tips on care and maintenance, including oil changes and vacuum leak fixes.

Abstract graphic of teal and orange shapes depicting the power and benefits of Volume Electron Microscopy.

What is Volume Electron Microscopy and Should You Use it?

By Thomas Warwick | August 8, 2023

The emergence of Volume Electron Microscopy (vEM) has unlocked new possibilities in biological imaging, enabling us to visualize 3D structures of cells at high resolution. Learn more about this incredible technique in our latest article.

A cross-section of a mammalian cell used as an alternative to immortalized cells.

A Better Alternative to Immortalized Cells: Combining CRISPR and iPSCs

By Thomas Warwick | May 23, 2023

Investigating human diseases and genetic variation is complex, but CRISPR-edited induced pluripotent stem cells present a promising alternative to immortalized cell lines. This article delves into genome editing principles and offers practical steps for optimizing research techniques, ensuring more accurate and ethical studies.

A chemistry professor checking which reagents are usable past their chemical expiry dates.

What Reagents Can You Use Past Their Chemical Expiry Date?

By Thomas Warwick | March 21, 2023

Learn about what reagents are usable past their chemical expiry date, how can you check if they are still okay, and which ones you should throw out.

Colorful building blocks representing fun hobbies for scientists.

10 Fun Hobbies for Scientists

By Thomas Warwick | March 14, 2023

Want to boost your research through inspiration, creativity, fitness, and articulacy.?We’ve listed an assortment of fun hobbies for scientists.

Water droplets representing water of crystallization

What is Water of Crystallization? Everything You Need to Know

By Thomas Warwick | February 16, 2023

Not sure what water of crystallization is? This article explains everything you need to know so that you’re equipped with the knowledge to decide if it matters to your experiments.

What is protein crystallography represented by an image of string connecting pins.

What Is Protein Crystallography? Structure Solution Explained

By Thomas Warwick | January 31, 2023

What is protein crystallography? Whether you are about to enter the world of protein crystallography or work with a protein crystallographer on your grant, this article will be useful.

A bomb exploding to represent an accident in the case where nobody knew how to conduct a risk assessment

How to Conduct a Risk Assessment: 6 Essential Steps to a Safer Lab

By Thomas Warwick | December 21, 2022

It’s crucial that we stay safe in the lab. To prevent accidents, we should risk assess our work. So here’s how to conduct a risk assessment in 6 steps.

Rusted metal to depict handling bases safely in the lab.

How to Handle Bases in the Lab: Everything You Need to Know

By Thomas Warwick | December 16, 2022

We all know acids are dangerous chemicals, and you should handle them carefully. But how should we handle bases? Read on for top tips for handling bases safely in the lab.

child stacking books on his head to represent a transfer stack and how to optimize your Western blot transfer

3 Hot Tips to Optimize Your Western Blot Transfers

By Thomas Warwick | November 4, 2022

Are you struggling with ugly and unreadable western blots? Here are 3 ways to optimize your western blot transfer and get blots to be proud of.

CCoffee being filtered in a funnel filter to representing purification of molecules in size-exclusion chromatography

How to Measure Molecular Weight Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography (SEC)

By Thomas Warwick | October 28, 2022

We often use size-exclusion chromatography to purify samples. Read this article to learn how to use it to measure sample molecular weight as well!

A man covered in notes and paper indicating under preparedness for journal club

Journal Club: How to Prepare Effectively and Smash Your Presentation

By Thomas Warwick | September 14, 2022

Journal Club. So much more than reading a paper aloud. So many ways to mess it up. Got to present one? Then read our journal club toolkit.

Somebody holding a flask of blue solution to symbolize buffers in how do buffers work

How Do Buffers Work?

By Thomas Warwick | September 12, 2022

Buffers provide a stable chemical environment for all our experiments. But how do buffers work? And how do you pick one? Read on to find out.

A researcher surrounded by numerous dangerous chemicals considering the 10 golden rules for working safely in the lab.

10 Golden Rules to Working Safely in the Lab: What Chemists Wish Biologists Knew

By Thomas Warwick | August 30, 2022

Working with chemicals is dangerous and can lead to injury, or worse. Follow these ten broadly applicable golden rules to help keep you and your colleagues working safely in the lab.

A skeleton wearing goggles being attacked by acid and piranhas thinking about how to handle strong acids.

How to Handle Strong Acids in the Lab

By Thomas Warwick | July 5, 2022

Acids are common and essential chemicals in any research laboratory. In this article, you’ll get advice on how to handle strong acids safely to give you the confidence to routinely prepare, handle, and dispose of them in the lab.

Daughter mimics dad as a superhero to highlight how researchers can mimic phosphorylation

3 Easy Ways to Mimic Phosphorylation 

By Thomas Warwick | May 10, 2022

Discover what phosphorylation is, understand why you might want to mimic it, and learn 3 ways to mimic phosphorylation for both in vitro and in vivo applications

A graphic of a fist punching the air to describe the concept of what is Cryo-Electron microscopy

What Is Cryo-Electron Microscopy? A Brief Introduction

By Thomas Warwick | April 26, 2022

You don’t have to be a genius to understand Cryo-EM. Discover the fundamentals of this powerful microscopy tool and what propelled it into the scientific mainstream.

An image of parchment and quill pen to depict the history of Cryo-Electron Microscopy

A Short History of Cryo-Electron Microscopy

By Thomas Warwick | April 19, 2022

The slow, inching progress of cryo-EM towards the scientific mainstream can be told as a story with three parts. So take a step back and enjoy a short history of cryo-electron microscopy.

Explorer in a cave of ice to represent the extreme temperatures required during cryo-EM sample prep

Cryo-EM Sample Prep: 5 Crucial Considerations 

By Thomas Warwick | April 12, 2022

You don’t have to be a brainbox to get your samples ready for cryo-EM, but a little wisdom goes a long way. Learn how to tend to your tissues, organize your organelles, and prepare your proteins to get the micrographs you’ve always dreamed of.

A bowl of peas as a visual metaphor for the letter P in the question: What is pH?

The Definitive Guide to pH, pKa, and pI

By Thomas Warwick | March 4, 2022

We all rely on pH, pKa, and pI for a vast amount of our research. But what is pH? How does it relate to pKa and pI? Read the definitive guide.

An image of items related to construction to convey structural information contained in a protein data bank file

Protein Structure Analysis: Extra Information in a Protein Data Bank File

By Thomas Warwick | March 3, 2022

Getting to know your protein’s structure can help uncover deeper insights and inspire new hypotheses. Discover how protein data bank files can help.

An image of a spiral staircase to depict circular dichroism sample preparation.

An Introduction to Circular Dichroism Part 2: Circular Dichroism Practice

By Thomas Warwick | February 8, 2022

Circular dichroism is a type of spectroscopy that can tell you the type and percentage of secondary structure units in a protein sample. Here are 5 handy pointers on best circular dichroism practice to set up your experiment properly.

An image of a spiral color spectrum to depict the principle of circular dichroism.

An Introduction to Circular Dichroism Part 1: Circular Dichroism Theory

By Thomas Warwick | February 1, 2022

Circular dichroism is a type of spectroscopy that can tell you the type and percentage of secondary structure units in a protein sample. This article will take you through circular dichroism theory and some of its applications.

Layered cocktails representing SDS-PAGE Gel Recipe

A Simple SDS-PAGE Gel Recipe and 10-Step Casting Protocol for Perfect Gels

By Thomas Warwick | January 25, 2022

SDS-PAGE is the technique that unites life scientists. We all perform it during our research to separate protein analytes and, therefore, we all need a good SDS-PAGE gel recipe.

An image of snow crystals to depict protein crystallization seeding

5 Protein Crystallization Seeding Techniques for Bigger and Better Crystals

By Thomas Warwick | January 20, 2022

Protein crystals are crucial for structure solution via X-ray crystallography but are notoriously hard to grow. We’ve got you covered with 5 clever protein crystallization seeding methods to grow impressive protein crystals.

A bearded man with a stained top holding stained laundry to convey protein staining methods

Protein Staining Methods: An Overview of 3 of the Best

By Thomas Warwick | January 12, 2022

There are several great protein staining methods, but how do you pick the one that’s appropriate to your intended application? Read on to find out.

An image of a thermal spring to depict the thermal shift assay.

Meltdown: A Hot Introduction to the Thermal Shift Assay

By Thomas Warwick | December 7, 2021

The interaction of proteins with ligands is an important phenomenon. Learn how to detect these interactions (and much more) using the thermal shift assay. In this article, we’ve got you covered with the basic theory and an easy protocol too.

An image of different types of salt to depict ways to distinguish between salt and protein crystals

5 Easy Ways to Tell Salt and Protein Crystals Apart

By Thomas Warwick | November 2, 2021

How do you make sure that the crystals you have grown are of your target protein? Can you tell salt and protein crystals apart without using X-ray diffraction? Yes, you can. Read on to discover five easy ways to distinguish between salt and protein crystals.

An image of a kid holding colorful pencils to depict using molecular visualization tools.

Learn to Draw a Molecule in PyMOL™ in 8 Easy Steps

By Thomas Warwick | September 16, 2021

Discover how to easily draw proteins and nucleic acids using molecular visualization tools with our step-by-step tutorial.

Image of teddy bears in bubbles as a funny wa to represent the need to remove excess detergent from membrane proteins

Beat Back the Bubbles: 6 Ways to Remove Excess Detergent from Your Membrane Protein Sample

By Thomas Warwick | August 26, 2021

Excess detergent in your membrane proteins samples can cause you serious headaches. We’ve got you covered with 6 ways you can remove excess detergent from membrane proteins.

An image of salt crystals to depict the crystallization of protein–DNA complexes

Crystallize Your Protein–DNA Complex by Optimizing These Key Parameters

By Thomas Warwick | July 27, 2021

Looking to engineer a crystal? Here are some key parameters to optimize to give you the maximum chance of success at crystallizing protein DNA–complexes.

An image of a man punching liquid to depict improving protein expression using osmotic shock

Improving the Expression of Insoluble and Inactive Proteins Using Osmotic Shock

By Thomas Warwick | July 6, 2021

Discover a better way to improve the expression of your insoluble and inactive proteins using osmotic shock.

Image of soap bubbles to represent working with membrane proteins

Working with Membrane Proteins: Tips for Expressing, Extracting, and Purifying Your Membrane Protein Sample

By Thomas Warwick | June 15, 2021

Working with membrane proteins can be tricky. Read on to get tried-and-tested tips and tricks for expressing, extracting, and purifying these water-phobic proteins.

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