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Protein Expression & Analysis

Key Analytical Challenges for Antibody Drug Conjugates

Currently, there are more than 75 antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) in various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. The combination of a targeted antibody coupled with a cytotoxic small-molecule drug (via  a flexible linker) makes for a lethal and specific oncologic drug product. However, an ADC is a heterogeneous cocktail of molecules with a range…

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Stripping Blots – It’s All Fun and Games Until Someone Loses Their Protein

Like all technical fields, molecular biology contains a very robust “theoretical” realm and an equally robust “practical” realm. Unfortunately, these two existences don’t seem to overlap as often as we’d like. Consider, for example, a simple Western blot. While an antibody interacting with its target on a membrane seems pretty straightforward, there are numerous other…

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Why Do Enzymes Have Optimal Temperatures?

Every biologist is familiar with the profile of the rate of an enzymatic reaction versus temperature as shown in the figure. We know that enzymes from E. coli or warm-blooded animals tend to have an optimum around 37°C, while those from thermal vent bacteria have much higher optimal temperatures. Surprisingly, I find that many biologists…

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