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Flow Cytometry

Corralling Your Cells: How to Gate in Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometry. Some people love it—most hate it—but all can agree that it is one of the most powerful analytical tools immunologists possess. Here’s a quick refresher: as the name suggests, flow cytometry measures the physical and chemical characteristics of cells. This is accomplished by fluorescently labeling cell surface markers/proteins using antibodies conjugated to fluorophores.…

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Lighting the Way: Understanding Flow Cytometry Fluorophores

As science is becoming more interdisciplinary, the tools we use to answer questions are also crossing party lines. Case in point: flow cytometry. Once a tool only used by “real” immunologists, flow cytometry is fast becoming a method by which numerous questions can be answered, from the length of a cell’s telomeres, to the state…

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Analyzing Cell Signaling with Flow Cytometry: Go with the Flow

Phosphorylation Equals Cell Signaling! How do cells communicate and respond to their environmental cues? This question has been on the hot list for scientists ever since the discovery of the cell. Cells use signaling cascades based on biochemical reactions to deliver or receive messages. How cool is that? The major secret of cell signaling was…

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Detection of Apoptosis by Flow Cytometry: To Be or Not to Be

Sometimes only a small subset of a cell population will show apoptotic features making flow cytometry an excellent way to identify and quantify them. A previous Bitesize Bio article showed how flow cytometry can detect apoptotic hallmarks. More than 30 different dyes can be used to detect apoptosis. It is also true to say that…

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Cell Cycle Analysis by Flow: DNA Stains and Beyond

While you can observe mitotic cell cycle progression using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry is a great tool to delineate details that aren’t apparent by chromosomal morphology alone. DNA stains are a great way to get a general idea of what your cells are up to. There are also a number of other stains you can use…

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A Biologist’s Guide to Choosing Your Fluorophore Palette

You may notice that nature is full of vibrant, even fluorescent, colors. The human eye detects wavelengths ranging from 390-700 nm and our perception of colors is actually a narrow part of the light spectrum. Other organisms can detect color from a wider spectrum. Why do colors exist? Arguably, colors are communicative, from tropical fish…

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Flow Cytometric Apoptosis Assays for Cell Death

Apoptosis, often called programmed cell death, is a carefully regulated process that is part of normal development and homeostasis. Apoptosis is morphologically and biochemically distinct from necrosis, which is conversely called accidental cell death. Dysregulation of apoptosis is implicated in disease states such as cancer, autoimmune disease and degenerative conditions. Apoptosis consists of an orderly…

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Top 5 Tricks for Using FlowJo

Are you planning to do cellular immunology research?  Then chances are you will be introduced to the flow cytometer –  “a modern immunologist’s best friend.” This modern magic box is a highly versatile machine packed with cutting-edge fluidics and photonics (lasers). Combined with the monoclonal antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes capable of emitting light signals from a…

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Introducing CyTOF: Cytometry of the Masses

Flow cytometry remains unparalleled as a single-cell analysis technology.  The ability to analyze 14 or more fluorescent parameters on a million cells or more allows for detailed understanding of complex biological processes. The Problem With Traditional Flow Cytometry One limitation of flow cytometry is the reliance on fluorescent tags.   Even with careful panel design, loss…

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Mass(ively powerful) Cytometry

Mass Cytometry is a relatively new technology which has recently featured in many high-impact journals. You may have read about instruments including the CyTOF, CyTOF2, and more recently, the Helios. With these instruments becoming more widespread, you might find yourself asking, what is mass cytometry, and what can it do for you? The Basis: Conventional…

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2015 Staff Picks: Flow Cytometry

There’s a joke in here about our editorial team going with the flow, but I can’t quite seem to make it work (feel free to leave suggestions in the comments). Despite my inability to make a joke count, I do hope that you find these articles amusing and useful. Jen Redig, Managing Editor Spot the…

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Locating Your Cellular Apoptosis Squad: Annexin V Staining Assays

In real life, cells are instructed to commit suicide for the greater good of the organism. The programmed cell death (apoptosis) is important during development of a multi-cellular organism. A good example you will appreciate is the dis-appreance of the tail from a tadpole as it turns into a frog. On the reverse, the lack…

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MIFlowCyt Guidelines: Helping You to Publish Your Flow Data

Wow, you’ve done it! Your experiment worked and your boss asked you to write it up for publication in your favorite journal. Where to start with presenting your flow data? Take a deep breath, help is in hand in the form of the MIFloCyt Guidelines. As with other scientific techniques, there are ‘Minimum Information about…

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The Nope-Nope-Nevers of Using a Flow Cytometer

There are some wonderful toys in the lab that enable us to open up a whole new world in science. One of those is a rather pricey and an incredibly sensitive laser-based apparatus capable of counting and sorting cells, detecting biomarkers, and engineering proteins: the flow cytometer. By propelling cells through the path of the…

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Troubleshooting: No Events on Your Cytometer

It’s happened to us all, you are ready to run your samples on the cytometer and you can’t see your cells on the screen. Here are a few tricks to troubleshooting this: Cytometer vs. computer connection The different types of cytometers will need different orders for switching on the cytometer and computer. Some are cytometer…

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