Mass Spectrometry, also referred to as mass spec, is an analytical technique becoming increasingly important in bioscience research. This article will introduce you to this technique, how it works, and how it could be useful to you in your research. So let’s get started with your introduction to mass spectroscopy…
What Is Mass Spectrometry?
In a nutshell, mass spectrometry accurately measures the mass of different molecules within a sample. Even large biomolecules like proteins are identifiable by mass, which means that biologists can perform some very interesting experiments using mass spectroscopy, potentially adding a new dimension to your research.
Could Mass Spectroscopy Be Useful for Me?
Yes, if you want to:
- Identify molecules in a mixture
- Detect impurities in a sample
- Analyze a purified protein
- Study the protein content of a sample of cells
How Does Mass Spec Work?
There are three key stages to the spectrometer:
Molecules in a sample are vaporized (converted to the gas phase by heating). Then, an electron beam bombards the vapors, which converts the vapors to ions. Because mass spectroscopy measures the mass of charged particles, only ions will be detected, and neutral molecules will not be seen.
Ions are created by giving electrons to a molecule (producing a negatively charged ion) or taking electrons away from a molecule (producing a positively charged ion).
Note: a sample can only be analyzed by mass spectroscopy if it can be vaporized without decomposing.
2. Acceleration and Deflection.
Next, the ions are sorted according to mass in two stages – acceleration and deflection.
Acceleration is simple attraction. The positive ions created in the ionization stage accelerate towards negative plates at a speed dependent on their mass. In other words, lighter molecules move quicker than heavier ones.
Deflection is the magnetic bit…the ions are then deflected by a magnetic field, and the extent of deflection is again dependent on mass. So, ions of different mass travel through the spectrometer at different speeds.
Ions of increasing mass eventually reach the detector one after another, and then it’s over to the computer to provide a spectrum. The output will look something like in Figure 1.
Note: This simplified mass spectrum has been drawn using data from the Spectral Data Base System for Organic Compounds (SDBS) at the National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research in Japan.
Omission of minor lines with peak heights of 2% or less of the base peak (the tallest peak) provides clarity.
Reading The Spectrum
First, you should notice that simply ‘mass’ on the x axis but ‘m/z’, where m is the mass and z is the charge. What the spectrometer actually measures is mass/charge (m/z) ratio. Sounds complicated, but it’s not—because the majority of the ions produced during MS have a charge of 1, m/z is normally equal to the mass of the molecule. Simple.
Is Mass Spectroscopy Worth It?
In a word: Yes. Mass spectroscopy provides accurate weight measurements for your bio- (or other) molecules, which can be used to:
- Give a good estimate on the purity of the sample (i.e., whether there is one or more molecular species in your sample and what ratio those species are in)
- Monitor reactions, sequence amino acids, and oligonucleotides as well as give information on protein structure
- Identify and quantify samples
Mass spectrometry has enabled biology to move from identifying single proteins to proteome-wide characterization and quantification. With the development of this tool, researchers can now feasibly begin defining biochemical pathways on a kinetic basis, which will help us understand the mechanistic response of cells to changing environments.
Peptides, Hospitals, Drugs and Crime Scenes: Practical Uses of Mass Spectroscopy
Drug companies and researchers are using the technique for drug discovery, for gaining information on drug metabolism and for pharmacokinetic studies.2 The study of proteins through mass spectrometry is now aided by information obtained from the genome sequencing projects.3 The technique has also found medical uses, such as neonatal screening, blood analysis, and drug testing. These uses also make mass spectroscopy (when coupled with other analytical techniques) a powerful tool in forensic analysis.
How Do I Go About Using Mass Spectroscopy?
If you feel that mass spectroscopy is something that could be of use in your research, check whether your department or college has mass spectrometers available for use. This might be either as a ‘walk up’ service where you book a slot and run your own samples or as a technician-run service. Training will always be provided for these services so ask around. While the number of uses is large, the instrument itself is not —normally the machine can fit on a bench top.
But Remember This Before You Use a Communal Mass Spectrometer…
The most important factor in getting accurate results is keeping it clean and free of contaminants. As many a chemist will testify, this is often an issue with communal mass spectrometers—especially if the user before you did not the column properly. It’s wise to bring your own solvent to clean the column before (and after!) use.
Want to Know More?
This article was a brief introduction to the basics of mass spectrometry, but it doesn’t end there! There are various ways of producing the ion required, and the method chosen depends on the nature of the sample molecule. You can find out more information in the references below.
- Baker M. (2010) Mass spectrometry for biologists. Nature Methods. 7:157.
- Ashcroft AE. An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry.
- Yates JR. Mass spectrometry in biology. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. pp. London: Nature Publishing Co.; 2001. 1–5.
Originally published in 2011, republished in 2016.Image Credit: Lachlan Arthur