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Which Type of Ethanol Should I Use?

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Ethanol is super useful. It’s great for killing bugs, setting things on fire, and forcing nucleic acids out of solution. But not all ethanol is created equal, and not all kinds of ethanol are suitable for every task. To help you make sense of your flammables cabinet, here’s the rundown on the grades of ethanols typically used in molecular biology, as well as some important rules for how to use them correctly.

Ethanol grades

1) 95% (95.6%) ethanol

This is the highest concentration of ethanol you can get by distillation, because 95.6% ethanol is an azeotrope, which means the vapor state has the same ethanol:water ratio as the liquid state.

2) Absolute (99-100%) ethanol

Some procedures that are sensitive to the presence of water require absolute ethanol. A common method to produce ethanol with a higher concentration than 95% is to use additives that disrupt the azeotrope composition and allow further distillation. For this reason, absolute ethanol sometimes contains trace amounts of these additives (such as benzene). Absolute ethanol is hygroscopic (it attracts water), so don’t expect it to remain ‘100%’ ethanol for long if it’s left uncapped.

3) Denatured ethanol

Denatured ethanol (either 95% or absolute) contains additives (such as methanol and isopropanol) that render it unsafe to drink, and therefore exempt from certain beverage taxes. This makes it cheaper than pure ethanol.

Ethanol for molecular biology

You should not use denatured ethanol when precipitating nucleic acids, since some of the additives can interfere with downstream applications. This is a bit tricky to predict, because the additives vary between producers, but it is safest to avoid denatured ethanol altogether. Non-denatured ethanol at either 95% or 100% can be used, although when working with fluorescently-labelled nucleic acids, I don’t use absolute ethanol, in order to avoid background fluorescence from residual benzene.

Ethanol for disinfection

Aside from substantial differences in cost, it doesn’t really matter which ethanol grade you use for disinfection, so most labs use a denatured stock. What does matter is the final concentration of ethanol. Ethanol is an effective disinfectant at concentrations between 70% and 90%.  Strangely, no-one has established experimentally exactly why undiluted ethanol doesn’t kill some kinds of bacteria as rapidly as diluted ethanol, although the most likely reason is just that aqueous ethanol is a more effective protein denaturant than absolute ethanol1.

However, there are two things to watch out for when diluting ethanol. One is that diluted ethanol is no longer an azeotrope, so evaporative loss will result in a gradual decrease in ethanol concentration. People who keep unsealed beakers of 70% ethanol on their bench should not be surprised when the ethanol ‘stops working’.

The second thing to watch out for is that ethanol/water mixtures don’t have additive volumes. That means that if you want to make 1 L of 70% ethanol from absolute ethanol, you can’t do it by mixing 700 mls of ethanol and 300 mls of water. The correct method is to measure 700 mls of ethanol and then bring it to a volume of 1 L with water.

Of course, you also shouldn’t forget that ethanol of any grade is highly flammable when undiluted. Watch that flame!


1 Ali, Y, Dolan, MJ, Fendler, EJ and Larson, EJ (2001) Alcohols in Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, ed. Block, SS, 5th ed.


  1. Lee on April 4, 2019 at 9:01 pm

    “Ethanol is an effective disinfectant at concentrations between 70% and 90%. Strangely, no-one has established experimentally exactly why undiluted ethanol doesn’t kill some kinds of bacteria as rapidly as diluted ethanol, although the most likely reason is just that aqueous ethanol is a more effective protein denaturant than absolute ethanol1.”

    Direct source please.?

    There are an abundance of studies showing efficacy rates of various alcohols at different concentrations. While 90% ethanol may kill bacteria, it can take hours and hours of soak time for a full kill. 70% is the most efficient and rapid for a full bacterial kill, not including spores of course. 70% also has other advantages. Its cheaper, Its less flammable, Less vocs. It evaporates slower and therefore requires fewer applications. It’s also less abrasive on surfaces.

  2. HO/14 on July 27, 2017 at 7:33 pm

    The posts on EtOH precipitation are greatly valued in my lab. Thank you for this!

    We have anhydrous ethanol that is expired. I’m curious to learn what problems use of this may pose. I understand that this solution is hygroscopic and while the cap is always on, we likely now have a lower alcohol percentage than we did originally. Is this the only thing to be concerned about? If so, is there some equilibrium that such a solution would come to that would define the ethanol:water ratio?

  3. Lee on March 8, 2016 at 12:43 pm

    Hi, I would like to ask if 99% ethanol is suitable to be used as a solvent for alcohol activated makeup? For your information, the makeup palette is skin illustrator. Your reply is much appreciated, thanks.

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