If you are a researcher who is using fluorescent staining on your cells and tissue sections, you should seriously consider using tyramide reagents. Why? Well, because they can have exquisite sensitivity, are easy to use, versatile and there is an increasing range of fluorophores in the pipeline. As they rely on a peroxidase catalysed visualization process, they are easily integrated into established peroxidase detection protocols. Furthermore, they have the advantage of working at more dilute antibody concentrations and with improved sensitivity. We have used them successfully for the detection of protein (immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence) and mRNA (‘RNAscope’).
What would we do without tyramide?
We run a multi user, multi discipline core research within the University of Edinburgh (SuRF). Tyramide reagents are regularly used within the facility- in fact, they are a critical reagent due to their abilty to ‘standardise’ multi and same species colocalisation and multiplexing experiments (protein and mRNA). Click this link to find out more about the tyramide products which are available.
No cross reaction
A unique property of tyramides was discovered by Zsuzsanna Tóth and Éva Mezey and reported in the Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry in 2007 (click here for the article). Toth and Mazey demonstrated that tyramides will remain bound to the target of interest following a mild heat induced epitope retrieval step that removes previously bound antibodies from the cell or tissue section. This eliminates the risk of antibody reagents cross reacting with each other in multiplex colocalization studies and giving false positive colocalization results.
Same species? That’s okay
In principle, this means that antibodies which have been raised in the same species can easily be used in colocalization experiments and traditional HRP conjugated secondaries, streptavidin HRP and polymers can be utilized to push the sensitivity. A further advantage in our hands is that we are able to automate this staining procedure using immunostaining robots equipped with on-board antigen retrieval capability- a considerable advantage if multiplex immunofluorescent staining is to be delivered to multiple users as a service.
The possibilities are endless
In our multi-user histology facility, it was extremely difficult to develop multiplex protocols for our researchers using traditional combinations of direct, indirect or streptavidin based detections. Such an approach would have necessitated stocking a large range of antibodies and detection systems to accommodate the large number of possible permutations we needed to address. We have a large number of users who are interested in using a diverse range of tissue from a diverse range of species and, of course, the primary antibodies which each person wants to use also come from another diverse range of species- the possibilities are endless!
Factors that needed to be considered for our users were;
- Choice of secondary antibody. Was it suitably cross absorbed so that it was not going to cross react with the target tissue or other antibodies in the detection system?
- Was the detection system of suitable sensitivity to detect low abundance target proteins?
- What controls do we need to perform to guarantee that “co-localisation” was real and not an artefact of inappropriate reagents cross reacting and giving false co-localisation?
Using standardised tyramide-based detections and confocal microscopes with multi tracking capability we were able to standardise protocols and routinely visualise four to five colours.
By employing spectral unmixing when imaging, and with the availability of new tyramide reagents, it should easily be possible to push this number even further. In a recent publication, Gerdes and co-workers used iterative staining following the chemical inactivation of fluorescent Cy dyes and sequential imaging with accurate registration of fiducial points. This enabled them to detect 61 different protein epitopes in a single FFPE section! Sixty one!
The future is bright
The use of peroxidase labelled primary antibodies followed by fluorescently labelled tyramides in this type of approach could perhaps lead to an even greater sensitivity and allow the visualisation of proteins expressed below the detection limit of direct fluorescent detections. Watch this space!
This article was co-written by Mike Millar and Shelia Macpherson- two ninjas of histology from the SuRF Unit!
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