Graduate school (PhD training) is full of roadblocks and obstacles that threaten to hinder progress, but your major professor (PI) should not be one of them. If you are frustrated with your progress and your lab environment has become unbearable, don’t throw in the towel just yet! You may need to change labs.

Finding the right student-mentor match can put you on the fast track to an inspiring graduate career, but the wrong match can keep you mired in an unproductive fog.

It takes knowing what kind of mentor you are seeking, knowing what kind of worker you are, what type of lab environment you are looking for, and, of course, what kind of research you are interested in. Ideally, this should have guided your initial choice for choosing a major professor, but we all know that sometimes relationships just don’t work out. Still, the decision to change your major professor should not be taken lightly. But before you take the step of  switching labs, there are several things you should consider.

Universal truths

1. Grad school is HARD. Let’s face it: it isn’t going to be easy no matter what lab you are in. Still there is a fine line between a PI who will challenge you and one who will obstruct you. This really depends on your needs as a student. One thing is for certain, changing labs is not a way to get out a transient slump, but a way to continue forward in the face of an irreconcilable difference with your current PI. It may be that, by staying in your current lab, you will be able to overcome a difficult patch and be better for it.

2. Time. Changing labs will likely set you back at least several months. If you are in a big hurry to graduate, you might consider sticking it out in your current lab. However, if you see no hope of progress where you are, you may come out ahead in the long run by switching.

3. PI’s track record. A good way to estimate your chances of success with a PI is to look at the students who have come before you. How many students have earned their PhDs under your PI? How long did it take? How many publications did they have? Older PIs tend to have more experience in advancing graduate students. If students are routinely graduating with several first author publications, this suggests a well organized and highly motivated group.

4. Funding. Without a steady supply of grant money, a lab cannot maintain the expensive materials and personnel needed to survive. A lack of funding is a huge hindrance to research progress and could leave you stranded without a way forward. In addition, you will likely have to work as a TA to cover your stipend, diverting valuable time from your research. The inability of a PI to employ students and maintain lab equipment is a major factor for switching labs and should be considered when choosing a new PI. Of course, having your own funding from a grant or fellowship is always preferred.

5. Research. You have to love what you do! Switching labs to pursue research that inspires you is a valid choice, but the further from your current field, the longer it will set you back. It is doubtful you will be able to move your current project to another lab, but, if you like your research, try to find a lab engaged in similar studies. However, keep in mind you will probably be seeing your old PI at seminars if your interests remain the same!

Your Needs

6. Mentorship. Do you value autonomy or guidance? In other words, are you looking for a mentor who will guide you at every step, one who is hands-off, or someone in between? This usually depends on how much experience you have with designing experiments and troubleshooting technical problems. When looking for new PIs, it is always best to ask students currently in those labs for their assessment of the PI.

7. Your work habits. Your work habits should fit well with the mentorship style of your PI in order to avoid future confrontations. Are you self-motivated or do you need an extra push to get started? Some students may feel suffocated by a nosy PI while others may relish the interaction. Knowing yourself will help you choose a mentor suited to your working style.

8. Lab environment. Every lab has its own culture and group dynamic and it is important to get to know the other members. Large labs tend to have several post-docs and staff researchers who have become specialized in certain techniques. Their expertise can be quite helpful when getting new projects off the ground. Large labs usually allow more flexibility when designing a project because of the various research paths pursued. Smaller labs are often more narrowly focused, but tend to thrive on a strong team dynamic. You may be forced to become an expert in a variety of techniques and the learning curve can slow your initial progress. However, small labs are often just as productive as large ones and allow you to become a master at many different techniques.

9. Ask advice. Ask people you trust before making your decision. Believe it or not, many grad students have gone through the process of switching labs, or at least have considered it. Other students, your academic advisor, other PIs, and even departmental administrators can offer advice and insight into your situation and will generally have the discretion to keep it confidential.

If you decide it is indeed time to find a new lab, here are some tips for making a smooth transition:

1. Find out who is hiring. Your departmental coordinator may be able to tell you who is willing to take on new graduate students and who is definitely not interested in new students. This can help you narrow your search and give you an idea of your likely options. Other students can offer insight into their own labs and whether opportunities exist.

2. Arrange a new lab first. You don’t want to find yourself without a lab (or stipend)! Get all your ducks in a row before moving forward and always keep the option of staying in your current lab until the last possible moment.

3. Compile and organize your data for your PI. Consider that another student will likely pick up your project so make it easy on him or her. Your PI will appreciate it as well and will be less likely to have any “hard feelings” about your departure.

4. Avoid blowback. You will probably see your PI in the future at seminars and departmental functions, so it is best to leave amicably. Even if you are frustrated, don’t burn any bridges.

5. Hit the ground running. Once you’ve started in your new lab, don’t dawdle! You have to make up for lost time. It may seem like you’ve taken a step back at first, especially while formulating a new project, but putting in the extra effort up front will help you stay positive and focused as you embark on your new path.

Changing labs during grad school is a big, but sometimes necessary, step. Hopefully these tips will help you make the right decision. If you have any tips of your own, please leave a comment.

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  1. JH: I am currently in a very similar situation as you, although I am about 2 years in to my PhD program.  Like you, I really like my PI and they too are pretty hands-off and take a more passive approach in mentoring to “build an independent researcher”.   Fortunately, my other lab members have not ruined reagents nor given me wrong information but like yours are not much help. However, there are only about 2 other lab members so I have a small sample size.  I too feel like I have no direction or guidance and it is quite depressing being in an environment that does little to enrich the scientific process.  Lab meetings are lackluster and no one wants to be there, there is little excitement about progress in the lab, and no one talks about their research with one another.  So not a horrible situation, but definitely not a good one either. 

    You need to ask yourself is your situation one that is going to allow you to finish grad school and still enjoy science when you are done.  Although you may not hate it or think about quitting anytime soon, is this environment going to push you in new ways and allow you to become a better researcher?  Or even worse, will it drive you to a point where you no longer enjoy science?  Only you can really understand if this situation is not ideal, yet is still tolerable or whether it is teetering into the realm of having a negative impact on you.
    For what it’s worth, I have been unhappy in my lab for quite a while and am finally thinking about switching even though I am nearly half way done with graduate school.  I would rather go through the hardship of finding a new lab than stay in one that is slowly destroying my love of research. 
    1. JW, I am in a very similar situation that you are. I am going into my 3rd year of grad school – I’ve passed my comps and everything, it’s basically the home stretch! But the problem is that my PI decided that I had to change my thesis project because it was too similar to what a scientist is working on in the lab.
      My new project does not have any direction and I can’t see any innovation or significance in it.
      In addition to this, my PI is an MD, so she’s never around. I knew this when I rotated, and she said that my mentor would be one of the scientists in my lab. Recently he told me that he doesn’t have the time or desire to work with me anymore. So I am stuck in this situation without a mentor, and I just feel that I am being robbed of a good graduate school experience. I’m afraid that I will be way behind other students and not be a good candidate for a post doc position.
      I am really self-motivated, but this situation has just been so hard for me.
      I am starting to think about switching labs. It wouldn’t put me behind since I just switched projects and I don’t have any real data yet.

      It’s just so stressful and sad…

      I hope you’ve figured things out! And I hope that I do too, soon.

  2. Hello,
    I need some help about switching labs.  About 8 months ago I chose my thesis lab, however at the time I was greiving the loss of a friend.  So I can’t say I was in the right mindset for such a big decision, and I turned down a spot in an awesome lab.  Anyway, right away I had a sneaky feeling that perhaps I had made the wrong decision.  To sum it up, 8 months later I am really unhappy in the lab (I can’t sleep, I’ve started to develop other health issues).  At first I tried to move it towards a direction that would facilitate my training.  I’ve also talked to my PI on several occasions.  I’ve realized that it’s just not going to change and I’m not getting what I want out of it.  However, I’ve talked to three different PIs and for one reason or another (funding, time management, moving schools, whatever), my effort to move is not going very well.  So, I’m faced with a compromise.  I can stay.  Let me explain the lab.  The older members are very poor at communicating (one can barely speak english) and quite honestly they are of little help.  Sometimes, they have even told me things that are wrong, or my favorite, thawed out my samples and reagents on several occasions.  In my opinion, they are not very successful scientists.  My PI, while I like him personally, takes a very passive approach to the lab and training.  He is also very scattered and I find I get little direction.  Basically, I’m a 2nd year grad students, who is almost completely on my own.  I’ve joined other interest groups to make up for some of the difficiencies, but it just makes me feel even more overwhelmed.  I guess, my question is, I can’t really say there is something negative about the pi and lab environment, but does the lack of training and communication necessitate a lab change?   

  3. It is important to realize that changing labs should be a positive experience, encourage yourself by realizing you have the guts and drive to make sure that the graduate experience you get is the one you want.
    When talking to potential new PI’s I agree with Emily; do not focus on the negatives of the old lab or your PI. Do your research and find the things in the new lab that will serve as a positive and focus on those points. “I see that you have such and such as your research focus. I am interested in this aspect of your research and feel that my strength in such and such would be a valuable asset.” This shows them you are not just a complainer who can’t survive in the graduate world and that you have a positive attitude. It also shows you didn’t just choose the new lab out of a hat. If your old PI is a jerk, the other professors will already know so you don’t need to explain those things. Take it like a job interview, steer the conversation to the things you can offer and the things you expect. Be honest about your expectations and it will help steer you away from entering the same situation again.

  4. Kelly,

    I went through my program director to facilitate the transition. I spoke with him about why I needed to leave my original lab, and he contacted the PIs I was interested in, and explained the situation. That way I avoided the most awkward questions from potential new PIs and had some credibility with them, since I had been “vetted” by the program director already.

    In terms of explaining why you need to switch labs, it’s just like any job interview: you need to be able to explain conflict in terms that do not denigrate your old PI or make you look unprofessional. For instance, instead of saying “She’s a micro-manager”, try saying “I like to work independently”. Instead of “He’s demanding and overbearing”, try “We had different goals for my time in the lab”. I would strongly suggest practicing some key phrases before talking to any potential new PIs. Also, to make sure you improve your situation (instead of just changing it), try to be explicit about what you need and expect from a lab, so you and the PI can decide together whether the new lab will be a good fit.

    Best of luck!

  5. hey Emily and King,
    Please help me out. I am also changing labs. How did you approach the new PIs? how did you explain the reasons for changing? Thanks!!!

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