Automated Microscopy

The traditional microscope that you know and love is operated manually. Picture the scene: the microscopist chooses the light source, gently places the sample the moveable stage, selects the objective lens, and scans to select the field of view. This process is perfect for processing and analyzing a small number of samples per day. But…

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Data Analysis for Three-dimensional Volume Scanning Electron Microscopy

In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) scanning electron microscopy techniques have gained recognition in the biological sciences. In particular, array tomography, serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIBSEM) (described in Three-Dimensional Scanning Electron Microscopy for Biology) have shown an increase in biological applications, elucidating ultrastructural details of cells…

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Three-Dimensional Scanning Electron Microscopy for Biology


Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful technique, traditionally used for imaging the surface of cells, tissues and whole multicellular organisms (see An Introduction to Electron Microscopy for Biologists)(Fig. 1). While the resultant images appear to be three dimensional (3D), they actually contain no depth information. However, there are several SEM techniques that can obtain…

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